Jump to navigation Jump free dating sites in hull search “Trepanation” redirects here. Not to be confused with Trepanging. In ancient times, holes were drilled into a person who was behaving in what was considered an abnormal way to let out what people believed were evil spirits.
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Evidence of trepanation has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times onward. The perimeter of the hole in this trepanated Neolithic skull is rounded off by ingrowth of new bony tissue, indicating that the patient survived the operation. John Clarke trepanning a skull, ca. 1664, in one of the earliest American portraits. Clarke is alleged to have been the first physician to have performed the operation in the New England Colonies.
Trepanation is perhaps the oldest surgical procedure for which there is archaeological evidence, and in some areas may have been quite widespread. Europe, Siberia, China and the Americas. Most of the trephined crania belong to adult males, but women and children are also represented. Among New World societies trepanning is most commonly found in the Andean civilizations, such as pre-Incan cultures. For example, the Paracas culture Ica, situated in what is now known as Ica, located south of Lima. The archaeological record in Mesoamerica is further complicated by the practice of skull mutilation and modification carried out after the death of the subject, to fashion “trophy skulls” and the like of captives and enemies.